Are you debating between installing a cedar shingles or shake roof?
The two have significant design, installation and cost differences. On average, a cedar roof can cost $12,000-25,000, depending on whether you select wood shingles or shakes, grain quality, style and other factors.
Average Roof Replacement Cost:
Wood shake and shingle roofs are not the same when it comes to durability, longevity and protection against the elements.
A cedar roof is an expensive investment, so it is important to know all your options well, before making the final selection.
In this post:
1. Difference between shingles vs shakes
2. Material and installation costs
3. Understanding wood grain
4. Shingles options
5. Shake options
6. Premium shake and shingle products
7. Installation differences
8. Quality considerations – the Certi Label
Compare cedar shingles vs shakes
To a discerning eye, the visual contrast between shake and shingle is obvious right away. Shingles have a smooth uniform look that spans the entire roof surface, while wood shakes have a more rugged appearance, with each piece looking a little different than the rest.
Indeed, this difference is the result of the distinct ways in which each one is manufactured. For centuries, and as recent as 50 years back, cedar roof shingles were sawn from a block of wood, while shakes were split off using a mallet and a froe (sharp blade).
Today, with the advances in technology, shingles are machine made. They are sawn smooth on both sides and cut tapered. Shakes are still made by hand, but now power equipment is used to speed up the process. They are typically sawn on one side and split on the other.
Another important difference is that shakes are thicker, ranging from 1/2″ to 3/4″ or greater at the butt end. Shingles range from about 3/8″ to 1/2″.
From an aesthetic perspective, shingles may be a good option for a classic home, such a Colonial, Victorian, Ranch, etc. Shakes on the other hand, add unparalleled charm and character to Cottage and Cabin style homes.
Once significant difference between the two materials is the cost. Because shakes are a premium quality product and is also harder to install, it can cost up to 1.5-2 times as much as shingles.
You can expect to pay $15,200-$24,000 for cedar shake (roof size 1,400-2,100 sq.ft), depending on the type and finish options you choose.
By contrast, installing cedar roofing shingles on the same size house will cost $12,800-$19,700, depending on the type and finish options you choose.
Understanding wood grain:
There are three types of grain, each with a specific capacity for durability:
Edge: Cut perpendicular to the tree rings. because it is the most stable cut, it offers the highest quality and is least likely to split or distort over time.
Flat: Cut parallel to the tree rings. As a result, it is less stable than edge grain and is likely to split over time.
Slash: Cut perpendicular to the tree rings, but at an angle. This is the least stable cut, which is most likely to split or distort over time.
Wood Shingle Roof Options
Cedar roof shingles are recommended for use on pitch of 3:12 or steeper. They are available in a number of different thickness and lengths, as well as grades.
Thickness and length
Fivex: 1/4″ thick by 16″ long
Perfection: 3/8″ thick by 18″ long
Royal: 1/2″ thick by 24″ long
Overview of wood grades
In general, there are 4 wood grades:
Grade 1: premium quality; manufactured from the tree’s heartwood, 100% edge grain, with no defects.
Grade 2: good quality; manufactured from flat grain, with some sapwood allowed. Limited knots and defects are possible above the clear portion (it will show once shingles are installed). This grade is often used for re-roofing, as a starter course, or for a wall.
Grade 3: budget quality; may include sapwood and flat grain. Limited knots and defects are allowed above the clear portion. It is typically used for the undercourse in a two course application, garden sheds, or walls of outbuildings.
Grade 4 (Under-coursing): utility grade for under-coursing of double coursed sidewalls. This is NOT a roofing material and should not be used as a starter course for roofs.
Wood Shake Roof Types
Shakes are recommended for installations on pitch of 4:12 and steeper. All are cut from the premium Grade 1 (clear heartwood, with no defects).
There are 3 types:
Heavy split and resawn: sawn on the back, while the front is split with the natural grain. This creates a highly textured surface on the exposed face, that can be instantly recognized for its rugged appearance. This is also the heaviest type of shake, with available thicknesses of 3/4″, 7/8″, 1″ and 1 1/4″+.
Medium split and resawn: it is similar in appearance to the heavy split, and also produces a textured look. However, it is not as thick or heavy, with available thicknesses of 1/2″ and 5/8″.
Tapersawn: it is actually sawn on both sides to mimic the smooth uniform look of a shingle, only it is thicker. As a result, you get the tailored shake shingle look, accentuated by a sharper shadow-line, created by the thickness of the butt. It is available in thicknesses of 5/8″, 7/8″ and 1″. This is the most popular wood shake roof, as it works well with virtually any architectural home style.
Premium Shingles & Shakes
Depending on your needs and budget, there are a number of premium products available for both cedar roofing shingles and shakes.
If you are looking for enhanced aesthetics, you can order the following:
Fancy-butt shingles: (see picture on the right). These gorgeous shingles are manufactured in a variety of dramatic shapes. These are ideal for decorative accents.
Jumbo Shakes: a special order shake, typically a nominal 1″ or greater at the butt. By contrast, a Heavy Shake measures a nominal 3/4″ at the butt.
If you are looking for enhanced durability, you can order the following treatments (these are available both for shingles and shakes):
Fire Retardant Shingles/Shakes: while a typical cedar roof is susceptible to fire, it is possible to order Class A, B & C fire-retardant shingles and shakes. During the manufacturing process, these shingles/shakes are pressure-impregnated with fire-retardant polymers, and provide permanent fire protection. These products carry a distinguishing Certi-Guard label.
Fungal Protection Treatment: to extend the life of your roof, you can have your shingles/shakes pressure-impregnated with preservatives that will provide long lasting protection from fungal decay. This is an ideal option if you live in an area of high humidity. These products carry a distinguishing Certi-Last label.
It is important to note that you can have your shingles/shakes treated only for fire OR fungal protection, NOT BOTH!
Installation Differences Affecting Durability & Longevity
It is obvious that because shakes are thicker and are made from premium grades, they will typically be more durable and long lasting than shingles. However, there is one very important design and installation difference that affects overall functionality.
Because wood shakes are not made to be uniform and cannot lay completely flat (unlike shingles), the gaps between and under, make them more susceptible to wind blown precipitation. To mitigate this issue, it is required by code to install a layer of felt paper between courses of shakes. Felt helps block excess moisture and protects the roof. It also enables shakes to be installed with 2 rather than 3 layers, which would be very thick.
However, there are a number of inherent problems with this type of installation. First, there are many unscrupulous roofers, who cut corners and ignore building codes. It is a requirement that even when felt layers are installed, joints between shakes must still be offset by at least 1-1/2″ from course to course, to create maximum protection. Instead, because there is felt paper, roofers install these joints in an adjacent fashion, without off-setting them, which leaves felt as the primary source of protection against precipitation.
Moreover, even with proper installation, felt paper is not a strong guard against the elements, because it is thin and weak by nature. During the install, it often ends up being riddled with holes, which further weaken its ability to serve as a weather barrier.
On the contrary, shingles can lay flat and provide a more precise installation (felt paper is never used). Because they are thinner, shingles are always installed in a way that there are 3 overlapping layers at any point. This provides strong protection against rain and snow, even in severe weather areas.
This means that if you live in a region with frequent inclement weather, you have the following options:
1. Install Premium Grade shingles: you will avoid this issue all together.
2. Select Tapersawn shakes: they are similar to shingles in their uniformity.
3. Go for Heavy or Medium shakes: make sure to hire an experienced contractor, who will do a top notch job with the felt layers. Realize that with this option your roof will still be susceptible to moisture penetration, as felt is not meant to be a primary protection barrier.
Quality Considerations – The Certi Label
Not all shakes and shingles are made the same. If you want to ensure that your roof is made from the highest quality materials, select a product that carries the Certi Label, a registered trademark of the Cedar Shake and Shingle Bureau.
Since 1915, it has been an industry leader in monitoring and inspecting member mills and manufacturers for quality assurance. Participating members that carry the blue color Certi Label on their products must adhere to the most stringent grading rules and are inspected by legitimate, third party agencies, accredited by the Bureau. (see the proper label on the right).
Be careful of scams by manufacturers that put a blue color label on their products to lure consumers. We recommend you consult their website for a list of member manufacturers.
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